“Chintz: Indian Textiles for the West” by Rosemary Crill

“Chintz: Indian Textiles for the West” by Rosemary Crill


so the topic for tonight is Chintz and as
you know from this wonderful exhibition chintz here has it come to mean
something different to what I’m going to be talking about this evening so I
thought we’d start by defining some terms so on the screen is the sort of
choose the Indian Chintz that is the topic of my talk and I just wanted to
say a few words about what the definition of an Indian census as
opposed to the sort of Western printed cotton usually with floral designs that
has become Chintz to many of us in the Western world probably since about the
1920s when Chintz seemed to take on this definition what we’re looking at here on
the screen is a late 17th century or about 1700 hand-drawn resist died and
mordant died textile from southern India made for the Western market and it’s
basically these characteristics that identify all of the Indian textiles that
we’ll be looking at tonight I’ll be saying a bit more about those processes
a bit later on but the other thing I’m going to be doing is to really show you
some of the design elements that went into these very beautiful textiles and
to say something about how they were used in the rest and what their impact
was when they got there so this is one of the earlier pieces it’s from the V&A
collection probably as I say late 17th century and we’ll be looking at some
more of these historic pieces shortly I just wanted to show you some of the sort
of classic types as for example this one which has the sort of wonderful
flowering tree design that we have in so many of the Indian
chances that came to the west now these you can see a lot of similarity in this
wonderful little sinuous tree with these fanciful made up sort of flowers these
were obviously the inspiration for things like the Tree of Life quote that
you have in the exhibit here these are two pieces from the current show here
and I just wanted to make sure that the difference was was clear that these
pieces in this exhibition are made of pieces of fabric printed in the West
either in England or possibly in America and these were cut up and used on quilts
now these fabrics were obviously based very closely on the Indian designs that
had originally come from the west and those what I’ll be showing you shortly
so the tree design really dominated the earlier textiles from India that were
sent to the west from around 1600 there were the early years of the 17th century
onwards the flowering tree was really one of the most popular throughout the
18th century this one actually belonged to the actor David Garrick and his wife
Eva in London in the 18th century and it’s in the V&A there’s a whole set of
thumb that Garrick commissioned from India in about 1770 and because of the
prohibition that was put on chases at that time and I’ll come back to that
later these were confiscated by the customs
when they came into London and there’s a wonderful correspondence from Garrick
who of course being an actor made everything terribly overdramatic who
more or less clean for the sanity of himself of his wife to have these chintz
hangings released from custody where they’re thrown like common Lombok
so poor Garak he did finally get his Chintzes back and put them around his bed
which we also have in the V&A so there they’re still together but in our Museum
and some other countries especially Holland liked other sorts of designs the
trees were really very popular in in Britain but the Dutch went for some
really sort of big gutsy designs like this piece which is we have two of this
identical design one of them is quilted and one of them isn’t and I’m not sure
whether this is the quilted one or the non quilted one but basically these are
huge bigger than anything you have in your exhibition here I think they reach
from about this ceiling down to the ground for the hour and minutes and
whether they were meant to go on a bed is uncertain they might have been used
for hanging on a wall where they would have made a very dramatic statement and
quilted chances were often used for hanging on walls as partly because they
came into fashion at a time when the heavy wooden tapestries were going out
of fashion and so they were actually used in in some houses as a means of
warming the place up a bit so it’s not just on on beds the other main area
where chances were used was later on in dress and to begin with some of the
garments were actually made from furnishing fabrics which were cut up and
tailored that’s why quite often in some of the earlier pieces of dress you get
rather an incongruous large-scale design because it was once a large hanging cut
up into into dress fabric later on in the 18th century much more refined a
sort of rather beautiful elegant sort of sprig designs became more popular for
dress and we’ll see some of those shortly and it wasn’t only women’s dress
either men were also swept up in the the craze for Chintz and particularly in
a type of garment called a banyan like this
these are wonderful sort of informal robes that people wore at home from the
late 17th century onwards this is a sort of thing samuel peeps would have lounged
around in in the 1660s it is a home in England in in Holland where they were
very popular they were also called Japanese dresses and in fact it’s
probably more to Japan and India that the cut owes a debt it’s more like a
sort of kimono or something like that that anything an Indian would wear but
it’s also part of the very mixed up and hybridized tasteful chinoiserie that was
so current in Britain from the end of the 17th century onwards people wore
things that they thought were Indian were in fact they were more Japanese
they called Indian embroidery China work they called India a china shop where all
manner of wonderful exotic things could be purchased so as long as it was
oriental they really didn’t care where it came from and it was all just a
marvelous Asian mixture of things so the Banyan was more or less typical of that
trend now I just wanted to say a couple of words about the technique that goes
into an Indian cheese and these are four stages that was made specially for the
VMA in the early 20th century by an Indian trust and that shows you some of
the some of the stages now on the top now can I master this device yes on the
top left here we’ve got the design has been drawn by hand and this is with a
very basic tool called a column which actually just means read or pen so it’s
basically a bamboo tube with a lot of string wrapped around a part of its
length which is the reservoir for the sort of ink that is going to be used
draw on the cloth so very very basic tool but it’s still being used today so
with the column this outline has been drawn in iron mordant so when we
sometimes talk about a painted textile it’s not actually the color that is
painted or drawn onto these cloths it is the thing called the mordant which is a
sort of chemical and naturally occurring chemical which causes the dye to be fast
to stay in the in the textile when it’s immersed in the dye
so here the outline has been drawn with iron mordant and it’s then been died so
that the where the mordant has been applied the black dye will remain so
that stage is stage 1 the next stage is or where the red needs to go so we’re
still looking at the top left hand slide and all the places that are needed to be
red are painted or sort of brushed with the bamboo pen with an alum mordant as
alum from which aluminium is made but this is the naturally occurring salt
from the ground and this reacts with the red dye to make red so wherever you want
a red color you’re applying alum mordant you then immerse the cloth in the red
dye which in this particular case is from a plant called chai CH a whi which
grows only in Southeast India which is why these particular textiles have come
from a fairly small part of India so the top left hand slide shows you what has
happened when the crop has been immersed in the dye the red dye and all the
excess red dye has been rinsed out and so wherever it hasn’t had the alum
mordant applied it’s it’s great gone back to its natural color next on the
top right we see the wax resist applied partly apply it’s not quite finished the
to sort of put on again with any sort of implement and this you cover the entire
textile except those parts that you want to be blue because you’re going to dye
it with indigo now indigo is the opposite of the red dye it doesn’t need
a mordant in fact it will dye anything it touches so you want to shield all
most places you don’t want it to be blue you have to shield it from that dye so
only the blue bits will be exposed to that dye so here bottom left we see it
after it’s been immersed in the blue dye the leaves have gone blue the the wax is
then boiled off melted and gathered up and used again on the next textile what
we have here now are blue leaves and the red mordanted flowers and then in the
final stage on the bottom right green is made by over painting the Indigo that
dyed leaves with a yellow dye probably turmeric now the problem with yellow
dyes is that they’re very rarely fast unlike the blue and the red they don’t
they’re not colorfast where they fade in the light they fade when you wash them
so we see very few old Indian chilies that still have green leaves almost all
of the ones that we’ll be seeing their leaves a blue it’s not because they were
intended to be blue is because the yellow that was over painted has faded
or been washed off so those are basically the stages that you go through
to make an Indian Qin’s and what I didn’t even mention was the pre
preparation which involves days of bleaching the cloth in a vat of sheath
done lots and lots of rinsing lots of drying so all this is quite a long
drawn-out process and could take many weeks but basically you can see that
this is a very different idea than just in a fabric wither design now why did
they bother to do this I just thought I’d show you a couple of air details of
chances where you can really see for example how a white resist can be used
to great effect to make incredibly fine white designs against a colored ground
so these little patterns here and these here these sort of infilling designs in
white against the colored flower these are made again by drawing with wax with
this colorless bamboo color so everywhere you don’t want
colored you draw in wax then you dye it and everywhere that your wax has been
you can boil that off and you get a beautiful white design against the
colored background so that’s one of the sort of major characteristics of an
Indian chin that you get these marvelous white patterns against colored ground
now very occasionally you do get some printed elements in Indian chinses now
this these details are taken from the piece on the top right of the large
column core or hanging bed cover they were often used for both hangings or bed
covers and the word color before I should mention is one that you quite
often come across when reading about Indian census
it’s basically an envious ization of a persian word pollen posh which means bed
cover and that just became the normal sort of Indian English name for these
large imported hangings but if you look at the detail on the left this this one
you can see that this perhaps you can’t see but I can assure you it is the case
that this sort of cluster of leaves which sort of comes out of the side of
the tree is in fact a printed element the fun reason this area of the design
was carved out of a block and printed and the same goes for these little
creatures these little squirrel like creatures which appear in in pairs here
and there throughout this particular textile but that’s the only time I’ve
ever seen an Indian since that has printed matter in the design
sometimes we see printing in the border are three in the border or the
background these two again I hope you can see it rather is rather sulkily
colored but there’s a sort of fern like background to this one which is actually
done by by block printing and the same applies to the vermiculite it all sort
of worm-like background in the one on the bottom so
sometimes when there’s a large area to be covered with a particular sort of
design you may find it printed but it’s very very unusual now where did all this
sort of come from obviously we’re talking about the pieces that were
exported to Britain and Holland from the 17th century onwards but these things
had a life before the Europeans came along and started wanting them for
themselves and this is the type of hanging that was being made in the same
technique but as you can see in completely different designed for use in
India itself this is a hanging that would have been used you still in a
temple in order to tell the story of the Ramayana the great Hindu epic this one’s
probably a canopy because as you can see some of the design would be upside down
if you hung it on the wall so it’s almost certainly made to be looked at
from underneath just as a lot of the wall paintings telling the same stories
in Indian temples you get them both in rows on the wall but you also get them
on the on the ceilings of temples so this is made in exactly the same
technique with mordor’s dying and resist dying and
hand-drawn outlines so although they’re the things it needs the sort of designs
were so completely different because they weren’t being made for an external
market they were being made for domestic use now some of the earliest exported
pieces from India were not from this southeastern part of India done in that
technique they were from northwestern India from Gujarat and they were block
printed so just very briefly to show you what was going on in other parts of
India and early on these are – block printed pieces that were exported to the
Middle East and they were found in Egypt now these probably dates from about the
15th century some of these signs have been carbon-dated
and some date – as early as the 10th century and some – as late as the 17th
so it’s a sort of medieval period now these although they’re blocked printers
they’re still making use of that resist dying and mordant dyeing wherever you
have indigo basically what you have to have resists dyeing like the piece on
the right you can see very clearly that the white designs are done by a wax
resist and again the the reddish color would have been done with an alum
mordant or me in this case it’s a different plant this is a related to the
matter plant not that wonderful brilliant slightly pinkish way that you
get in the South Indian chillies so as well as the Middle East
Mediterranean area printed textiles from Northwest India from Gujarat and were
sent to Asia there are several markets in parts of
Asia that India had been supplying for centuries and we don’t know how long but
certainly from the very early centuries ad Indian textiles were going pretty
much all over the known world and these are two pieces that were made for the
engineer market again around 1500 so an
extraordinary span of trade was already in place at least by by the sixteenth
century if not if not earlier now of course the Europeans arrived in India in
around well the first as it were official European presence in India was
when the Portuguese arrived in 1498 when Vasco de Gama had discovered the sea
route to India and he landed at the port of Calicut in 1498 and the Portuguese
more or less established themselves there very early on and although the
Portuguese market is not the subject of this talk they started exporting Indian
textiles to Portugal of a different kind and we’ll see in a moment now this
gentleman he’s just a sort of generic Westerner from a bit later on around
1600 1610 we don’t know quite who he is but he’s a sort of typical European
possibly English possibly Portuguese trader perhaps in in North India now
obviously the Westerners were considered quite exotic and became a subject matter
for painting and for pictorial textiles in their own right and this picture this
textile was made probably for local use not for export although it’s had a
border put on around the edge of exports of later export chains and so these
splendid fellows with their mustaches a probably Indian but underneath we can
see this scene here with some Europeans feasting at a table with these wonderful
sort of glass vessels and obviously the fact is Doge was allowed into the dining
room was considered sufficiently unusual to be
ordered carpets of course very important export from India as well as from Iran
quite early on and these are just two of the college eyes for the extremely bad
picture of the top one these are two Indian carpets that came to Britain in
the 17th century both still in London the bottom one in the in the VNA and
this looks like a sort of normal almost like a Persian carpet except for the
fact that in the border and in the field we get this English coat of arms from
the feminine family and as we’ll see later long coats of arms were something
that were very important features of commissioned pieces in Chin’s as well as
in carpets embroidery was again another very important export material these are
two details from the sort of wonderful embroideries that were sent from eastern
India from Bengal to Portugal from the 16th century onwards
now the Portuguese were thrown out of India in 1632 so that’s quite a sort of
useful cutoff date for when Portuguese export things stopped being produced but
these beautiful chainstitch embroideries are typical of what was going there
before they before they left now but properly to look at some chinses in more
in more detail the first type of chances that really took Britain by storm if you
like were used as bed hangings and this is the full the full sized picture of
the detail I showed it on the very first image now things like this were
obviously based quite closely on English cruel work embroidery of the 17th
century so already by by the let me think now the the East India Company was
founded in 1600 and very soon after that by 1601
British ships had reached India and looking to trails they didn’t yet know
what they were going to be trading in because the the reason the East India
Company was set up was in order to sell British goods in India they didn’t
actually have at that time any idea that they might start importing Indian
textiles nevermind what a colossal enterprise this was going to turn out to
be so in the early years of the 17th century you start getting these letters
back from India further from the company officials saying what a terrible time
they’re having tried to fill their English woollen broadcloth and then
mirrors in India you know we could have told them that but they say but there
are some interesting pick styles here which might sell in London and so by
1618 Indian chances and embroideries are on sale in London and by about 1640
designs are being sent out to India from England in order to tweak those Indian
things to make them acceptable palatable to English tastes and this is the sort
of thing that was the result obviously cruel work hangings were still
very popular in Britain on the left is a bed in a national trust house in Devon I
think coat heel and you can see that this this design of a sort of flowering
tree coming out of you can just see at the bottom here there’s this sort of
rockery effect here and this is the sort of thing on which the chins on the right
was was based and you can see this sort of rockery design at the bottom so what
are the designs of the Indian chances to begin with that was the revolutionary
thing it was the material these were made of cotton
now the cruel work embroidery was we’re really quite thick if you’ve ever seen
any of them you know that there was thick wooden chain
stitch embroidery on quite busy linen cotton was practically unknown in Europe
at that time everything that either wool or linen or if you were very rich silk
so cotton was really a completely new thing so the lightness of the material
was new the colors were completely new and the fact that they were fast that
you could wash them this was something that really revolutionized life in
Britain in the early 17th century because the colors of the fabrics in
Europe at that time were not really colorfast depart from the indigo
equivalent wood there was very little that was fast hour that could withstand
light and washing so the lightness and brightness of the colors really sort of
took England by storm and basically they never never went back to wool and linen
in much of a way at all now these same designs could be rendered also in
embroidery and this is a beautiful embroidered chain stitch embroidery from
Gujarat so from a completely different part of India this is back up in the
northwest as opposed to the diagonally opposite end of India where the chances
were coming from so designs were orbitally going to several parts of
India where the East India Company was trading from and just to try and give
you a sort of sense of the difference between a cruel work embroidered hanging
and an Indian silk chain stitch embroiders hanging on the Left is part
of a very densely embroidered of cruel work hanging in on the right one of the
beautiful chain stitch embroidered hangings from from Gujarat and again the
intensity of those colours is absolutely amazing and this pinkish dye was
probably actually done with lat dying here the insects die that is the
equivalent of cochineal in America the same the same sort of designs were done
also in chintz and again you can get some idea of the
relative extreme increase in fineness and detail that you can get with one of
the hand-drawn and resists dyed chilies now that the hanging again that we saw
first we actually know which piece of cruel worth embroidery it was based on
sorry it’s only a black-and-white picture on the bottom but this is the
17th century cruel work embroidery of which there’s a piece in Boston and
there’s a piece in Glasgow and is obviously the basis for the Indians
hanging above it now some of the early chances didn’t just conform to this
cruel work type of hanging with the exotic flowers and there are some very
wonderful and quite extraordinary hangings from that early period this one
has obviously been made into a bed cover on because it’s got the corners taken
out for the four posts and in the center is the Stuart coat of arms now we don’t
know which Stuart King that was made for because it’s such an unusual design we
can’t date it by the design elements but it’s obviously a 17th century painting
and here’s a detail of it and you can see there is a sort of mixture of all
sorts of Chinese and other elements and I particularly like the pineapple and I
believe the pineapple was first introduced in Britain in 1640 so it’s
just possible that it could have been made even as a sort of celebration of
the pineapples arrival as well here’s another wonderful Qin’s with a sort of
animal designs on which is in Holland and here one of my favorites of all time
is this marvelous you can’t probably see it very well on this over
all of you but the central field is covered with us sort of thanked
fantastic creatures and animals in this in the central piece but from the
beginning of the 18th century onwards trees really came to dominate I’ll just
show you a few of the different tree types they started off very sort of
large-scale but these wonderful fanciful flowers as I mentioned before the the
Dutch were very fond of very large scale designs and this is again another
immensely large column core is probably for the Dutch market with this huge sort
of monstrous tree and these wonderful great cornucopias at the bottom the
Dutch were also rather fond of pink or red backgrounds to their chances and on
the right is a sort of reconstruction of a Dutch interior of the early 18th
century and you can perhaps just see that on the left-hand wall is one of one
of the wooden tennis trees that was at the time being superseded by chimps
hangings so it was obviously possible that you could actually use both in the
same room and on the left is a part of a set of bed hangings probably made for
the Dutch market with again with this wonderful tree design we’ve seen already
the piece on the right which again at another Dutch market non tree design but
on the left is a piece probably made for the French taste the French were very
into rather formal rather architectural designs often based on those of the
Royal designer Jean Barron who had been the the chief designer at
for example so even though this was quite a few decades after his bet there
are still very influential and these sort of rather classical strap work
designs were very popular in in France at the 18th century continued the tree
became more and more sort of Chinese in its flavor partly because of the
increased interest in chinoiserie that was sort of accelerating in in Britain
where we get this mixture of Chinese and Indian elements and you can see perhaps
on the right that the the the tree has become much more sort of spiky and
rather bamboo like in its foliage now these would probably be used in a whole
Chinese themed bedroom the wonderful style called Chinese Chippendale was
around this time when Thomas Chippendale was making these fantastic bands were
sort of pagoda like curved canopies and he’s amazing mirrors with Chinese people
sitting on the ledges and all this would work very well with also the Chinese
painted wallpaper that was coming in at the same time so it’s all taking on
quite a strong Chinese element and this is a detail of another Indian ships but
it has a very very strongly Chinese type of design another very favorite type of
design was one involving birds and birds could be used in all sorts of different
ways this one in fact I’ll show you of detail because you can’t see them very
well but this is exquisitely painted a draw and dyed the detail is amazing and
the colouring is unbelievably delicate and beautifully done so birds were a
very popular theme and continues to be so even when very very stylized
as you can see on the piece on the left there the birds have become sort of
flattened into floral shapes too to get into the
the design many of the tree designs were augmented by copies of European prints
and these were often of VARs of flowers and these sort of urns and valve is out
of which the tree was growing so these are just some details of the different
types of bouquets of flowers that were often used and these are often taken
directly from a French or Dutch still-life paintings or prints cornucopia another great favorite often
seen as well as the sort of tree tree design in here’s two different ways of
treating them one of the main a major element of many of the Western market
chances was the personalized family crest or coat-of-arms
that was incorporated into many of them now these were often done sort of at the
last minute so you might have a kid that’s a very standard tree design or
all over a flower design with places left blank and people would send in
their orders to have their family coat-of-arms added you didn’t I think
this is what’s happened on on these two pieces where you can see sort of
heraldic devices added to another wise quite standard sort of Chin’s just the a
few more heraldic devices again where you can see the what would have been
just a sort of blank thing with which has had coats of arms added like in this
corner detail here and border designs huge variation in
borders let’s just look at that last one on the right this amazing very
large-scale floral meander very typical of a sort of Dutch type of border and
again as the 18th century wore on these became more and more elaborate some of
them completely floral or in the case of the one on the top there’s sort of some
sort of root vegetable incorporated into the design again the later part of the
18th century you start getting these very Western type of swag details which
are obviously based on a sort of floral garland of various amounts of
elaboration some of the chances were based very strongly on European silk
woven silks designs now on the left is a dyed and painted chintz which looks very
much like a French silk of the 18th century and on the right the this
children’s dress length again is probably based on a bizarre silk
so-called of the early 18th century and again on the right here is a repeat
design which again probably a French woven silk pattern on the left is a
Dutch mourning gown done very unusually all in black again obviously this is
something that the Indiana craftsman wouldn’t have used normally at all and
would have been done as a special commission for this Dutch market and
dresses like this will particularly worn in the north of holland and indeed still
are in two places on special special occasions human figures as design is an
interesting area here you can see the the flowering tree is there as we would
expect but the bottom half is actually taken from an illustrative version of
Don Quixote and shows don quixote saying goodbye to Sancho Panza and there are
several of these extraordinary large pollen pores that have a floral design
combined with an image from an illustrated Western book again Western
people were obviously considered curious with lovesick elements of design
now the puzzling thing about this is that it was obviously made as a
petticoat for the Western market and how a Western woman said it’s about wearing
a petticoat that was decorated with Westerners who are obviously depicted in
a sort of strange and exotic way but a strange circular piece of circular sort
of relationship but here you can see the Westerners taking tea and going out for
a walk again the inclusion of dogs it’s obviously something that was considered
very odd by the by the Indian craftsmen all of these little fragments or
underskirt they all have Western figures as part of their part of the design now
dress as I mentioned was something that started really as a sort of offshoot of
the use of furnishing fabrics and started by being made from those
furnishing fabrics and then became more and more popular in its own right until
even grand ladies like Madame de Pompadour in France would be seen
wearing an Indian Kings dress and here again although her dress is rather
beautiful and delicate design is quite possible as
it was originally a furnishing fabric like the piece on the right which is one
of the large tree hangings and another interesting thing about this picture is
that it was completed in about 1764 which was the year of Madame de
Pompadour death but in fact the chintz looks as if it was quite a bit earlier
in the 18th century than that and we know that people would keep their
chinses going for years and years by converting them to the latest style or
even just by adding whatever sort of lace frills and cuffs were in fashion at
the time and I think this is probably what Madame de Pompadour had been doing
here with her wonderfully lavish lace cuffs the other interesting thing about
this picture is that it illustrates the way that chills was seen as very much a
sort of informal way of dressing just as the chins furnishings had been used for
the minor bedrooms of a house if you had a very fancy state bed where the king
might be coming to stay for example you would be sure that it would still be
decked out in velvet and silk but the smaller rooms and the ladies bedrooms
and dressing rooms would often be furnished with chins and the same
applied to dress dress wasn’t chins wasn’t used for very formal dresses that
would still be silk but Madame de Pompadour here is seen as her needlework
probably in the morning and she’s obviously in a very informal setting and
we find often that chances are used for very low-key
inform all our types of usage as I mentioned the large-scale furnishing
fabric stopped being used for dresses as it became more and more popular to begin
with dress address of Jensen rather being looked down on because it was
something that was obviously sort of secondhand but by the end of the 18th
century we have wonderful correlations saying the greatest ladies and now
wearing Chile’s where before it was only serving people some of the best
collections of chilies now survive in Holland and at these two dresses are and
that’s partly because Holland never introduced prohibition on Chilly’s
unlike Britain and France now of course the reason for this prohibition which
came in two phases in 1701 and 1720 was that it was so popular that the weavers
of the local fabric especially wool and linen seriously feared for their
livelihoods and were afraid that they would have no work whatsoever because
people just weren’t interested in wearing wool and linen anymore and we
know for example that in 1719 there was a great march of Weaver’s from
Spitalfields the famous silk weaving Center in London to Westminster a seat
of parliament to protect against the import of not only the import of Indian
chains but even British printing of Indian cloth so all printed cotton was
seen as basically the work of the devil and there are amazing stories about how
in 1619 these Littlefield’s weavers would assault people wearing chintz
dresses with physically tear chintz clothes off people’s backs really an
extraordinary uprising and something that we forget that you know textiles
can have this sort of extraordinary political power
a social one so in Holland where these two garments
come from nothing so dramatic ever happened and they continued to work kids
throughout the 18th century that’s why that’s such fantastic collections there
on the right is a petticoat and you can see the fact that there’s no decoration
on the top part of it means that it was it was designed especially for that use
because it would be covered up with the jacket like the one on the left so these
were no longer things that were just length of cloth being made into garments
they were actually purpose designed for jackets and skirts oops did I do that
yes it it as I mentioned men also were wearing these wonderful bands but again
very much as in formal wear and it was very much frowned upon if you actually
went out in public in a banyan unless you were in somewhere like bath where
you would be expected to be going to the bath and so you were expected to be in a
certain amount of undress so it was okay to wear your banyan in the street we
have one wonderful source about the popularity of cheese in the 18th century
and this is something called Barbra Johnson’s album Barbara Johnston was an
English lady are the daughter of a vicar in Biddeford I think and she did an
amazing thing which was for 80 years she kept a sample of every fabric from which
she ever had a dress made as well as its price and so on and so on the left we
have a page from her journal dated 1779 and here you can see an indian chintz a
floral pattern on the right hand side of the page and a little tiny printed
English fabric on the left and it’s interesting going through Barbara
Johnson’s album to see the the arrival if you like of
chintz into her life how much she used it but then by the end of the 18th
century we’re starting to get english printed fabrics coming in very much too
as arrival to those indian chances and this is really the beginning of the end
for the indian chintz trade as the eighteenth century wore on and indian
princes started to come back after prohibition was lifted in 1774 this is
just the sort of time when printing technology was really increasing and
improving in england of course this was the industrial revolution and the reason
that the industrial revolution was was taking place was largely in order to
make textiles that could compete with the indian imports and this was really
the the end of the story for indian chinese and european printed textiles
started to take their place these were done by roller printing so huge
quantities of cloth could be printed in a very short time and this sort of thing
was particularly expertly developed in France and in particular in our class
unlike for example the piece on the left is a roller printed cotton from Alsace
compared to on the right and earlier Indian Chintz and this is really as I
say the end of the line for Indian Prince’s just as with several other
types of India imports which were successfully destroyed if you like by
the Western imitations made by mechanized means so the beautiful
hand-painted and I’d Indian Prince’s succumbed to the
Western imitations so I think that’s where I’ll wrap up thank you

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