Textile industry in India

Textile industry in India


The Textile industry in India traditionally,
after agriculture,is the only industry that has generated huge employment for both skilled
and unskilled labor in textiles. The textile industry continues to be the second
largest employment generating sector in India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million
in the country. The share of textiles in total exports was
11.04% during April–July 2010, as per the Ministry of Textiles. During 2009-2010, Indian textiles industry
was pegged at US$55 billion, 64% of which services domestic demand. In 2010, there were 2,500 textile weaving
factories and 4,135 textile finishing factories in all of India. History
The archaeological surveys and studies have found that the people of Harrapan Civilization
knew weaving and the spinning of cotton four thousand years ago. Reference to weaving and spinning materials
is found in the Vedic Literature also. There was textile trade in India during the
early centuries.A block printed and resist-dyed fabrics, whose origin is from Gujarat is found
in tombs of Fostat, Egypt. This proves that Indian export of cotton textiles
to the Egypt or the Nile Civilization in medieval times were to a large extent.Large quantity
of north Indian silk were traded through the silk route in China to the western countries. The Indian silk were often exchanged with
the western countries for their spices in the barter system. During the late 17th and 18th century there
were large export of the Indian cotton to the western countries to meet the need of
the European industries during industrial revolution. Consequently there was development of nationalist
movement like the famous Swadeshi movement which was headed by the Aurobindo Ghosh. There was also export of Indian silk, Muslin
cloth of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to other countries by the East Indian company. Bhilwara is known as textile city. Production in decentralised sector
India is the second largest producer of fibre in the world and the major fibre produced
is cotton. Other fibres produced in India include silk,
jute, wool, and man-made fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry is cotton
based. The strong domestic demand and the revival
of the Economic markets by 2009 has led to huge growth of the Indian textile industry. In December 2010, the domestic cotton price
was up by 50% as compared to the December 2009 prices. The causes behind high cotton price are due
to the floods in Pakistan and China.India projected a high production of textile. There has been increase in India’s share of
global textile trading to seven percent in five years. The rising prices are the major concern of
the domestic producers of the country. Man Made Fibers: These includes manufacturing
of clothes using fiber or filament synthetic yarns. It is produced in the large power loom factories. They account for the largest sector of the
textile production in India.This sector has a share of 62% of the India’s total production
and provides employment to about 4.8 million people. The Cotton Sector: It is the second most developed
sector in the Indian Textile industries. It provides employment to huge amount of people
but its productions and employment is seasonal depending upon the seasonal nature of the
production. The Handloom Sector: It is well developed
and is mainly dependent on the SHGs for their funds. Its market share is 13%. of the total cloth produced in India. The Woolen Sector: India is the 7th largest
producer. of the wool in the world. India also produces 1.8% of the world’s total
wool. The Jute Sector: The jute or the golden fiber
in India is mainly produced in the Eastern states of India like Assam and West Bengal. India is the largest producer of jute in the
world. The Sericulture and Silk Sector: India is
the 2nd largest producer of silk in the world. India produces 18% of the world’s total silk. Mulberry, Eri, Tasar, and Muga are the main
types of silk produced in the country. It is a labor-intensive sector. Indian Textile Policy
Government of India passed the National Textile Policy in 2000
Textile Organisation The Indian Textile industries is mainly dominated
by some government, semi government and private institutions. The major functions of the ministry of Textile
are: Bhilwara Textiles Industry
Textile Policy & Coordination Man-made Fiber Industry
Cotton Textile Industry Jute Industry
Silk and sericulture Industry Wool Industry
Decentralized Powerloom Sector Export Promotion
Planning & Economic Analysis Finance Matters
Information Technology(IT) The advisory boards include:
All India Handlooms Board All India Handicrafts Board
All India Power looms Board Advisory Committee under Handlooms Reservation
of Articles for Production Co-ordination Council of Textiles Research
Association MM cotton industry
The major export promoting councils include: Apparel Export Promotion Council, New Delhi
Carpet Export Promotion Council, New Delhi Cotton Textiles Export Promotion Council,
Mumbai The major PSU or Public Sector Undertaking
are: National Textile Corporation Ltd. British India Corporation Ltd. Cotton Corporation of India Ltd. Jute Corporation of India Ltd. National Jute Manufacturers Corporation
Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation National Handloom Development Corporation
Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts, New Delhi
Handloom Export Promotion Council, Chennai Indian Silk Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
Power loom Development & Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
Wool & Woolen Export Promotion Council, New Delhi
Other autonomous bodies in this industry are: Central Wool Development Board, Jodhpur
National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi
National Centre for Jute Diversification The textile Research Associations are:
South India Textiles Research Association, Coimbatore
Ahmedabad Textiles Industry’s Research Association Bombay Textiles Research Association, Mumbai
Indian Jute Industries Research association, Kolkata
Man-made Textiles Research Association, Surat Synthetic and art silk –Mills Research Association,
Mumbai Wool Research Association, Thane
Northern India Textiles Research Association, Ghaziabad
Organized sector According to Kearney’s ‘Retail Apparel
Index’ India ranked as the fourth most promising market for apparel retailers in 2009. There is large scope of improvement in the
textile industry of India as there is a huge increase in personal disposable income among
the Indians after the 1991 liberalisation. There is also a large growth of the organised
sector in the Indian textile industries.The foreign brands along with the collaboration
of the Indian companies established business in India. Some of these are Puma, Armani, Benetton,
Esprit, Levi Strauss, Hugo Boss, Liz Claiborne, Crocs etc. The major Indian Industries include Bombay
Dyeing, Fabindia, Grasim Industries, JCT Limited, Lakshmi Machine Works, Lakshmi Mills and Mysore
Silk Factory. Bibliography
J.Forbes Watson. The Textile Manufactures and the Costumes
of the People of India. India Office by George Edward Eyre and William
Spottiswoode, London.  Illustrations of the Textile Manufactures
of India. Victoria & Albert Museum, London. 1881.  Albert Buell Lewis. Block Prints from India for Textiles. Field Museum for Natural History, Chicago.  References

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