Tourism, Textiles, Finance, & Food: Ancient Egypt Then and Now

Tourism, Textiles, Finance, & Food: Ancient Egypt Then and Now


♪[music playing–no dialogue] ♪♪>>Dr. Allen Lanham:
Today, we have four very excellent speakers
from the Department of Family and Consumer
Sciences with us. To present those speakers
will be Dr. Wahby.>>Dr. Wahby:
Thank you. Good morning and
thank you for coming. Now, these nice scarves
are made at EIU, so if you want to get one some
time or learn something about them, here’s Dr. Katy
Shaw to tell you. She is kind enough, with her
assistants and students, to do this, which is going
to be used on November 2nd when students do the
great grand finale of the symposium and walk
like Egyptians and dance like Egyptians and sport like
Egyptians, ancient Egyptians. So, this is kind of a
plaque for the last day. Without much ado, we’ll start
the Family and Consumer Sciences show for Ancient Egypt.>>Dr. Besty Pudliner:
Okay. [audience applause] Good morning, I’m
Dr. Betsy Pudliner and, again, I’m in Family
and Consumer Sciences. I teach Hospitality and Tourism,
so I’m in the travel industry. I’m going to talk about
travel in the ancient world. What we really have to remember
is that we are embedded in the natural, physical, economic
and social environments; like Chicago has a
specific environment, these three environments. At this time period, man is
basically coming into its own. What is really unique is that
ever since humans have been upright, we have needed a bed
for our head and we needed a butt for our seat, okay, or
a seat for our butts for like restaurants and stuff. So, we’ve always head to eat,
we’ve always had to sleep. There are some
really interesting, if you look at the
timeline, okay. One of the things that
starts the modern era of travel is the Sumerians. Now, I know this is an Egyptian,
it’s in the Mediterranean area, but what it is is they came
up with the idea of money, recording information,
so they came up with writing, as well
as the tour guide. Actually, people taking people
around, becoming experts and showing them where
to travel to. So, this is 4,000 BCE. Along the banks of the
Nile, because of the fertility of the water and
the area, the type of stone and everything that is going,
we see a unification of Egypt. We see a lot of city-states
arising, that they’re being connected
by the Nile itself. This is between
3,000 and 1200 BCE. Again, some more technology that
is coming about and this is, I know you’re going to think
this is really strange, but it’s actually an
industrial revolution because we see a shift,
again, in technology. Technology is playing a great
part in the development of different countries
and especially in Egypt. What we see is not only sturdy
crafts, carts are becoming available, the wheel, the
Sumerians, again, come up with the wheel, but there is
the ability to travel further and farther than
they were before. So, again, sturdy carts. So, the Egyptians are now going
and penetrating further into Africa, as well as traveling
around the Mediterranean. We see turquoise
and copper being extracted in Egypt
and the Sinai. Again, they’re cutting into the
stone and they’re building the elaborate tombs
for the pharaohs. Now, they may have had other
reasons for the building of the Great Pyramids, but actually
because of these curiosities, these colossal buildings that
no one has ever seen before, word is getting out because
we’re able to travel further and they’re bringing people
around the Mediterranean. Sturdy river crafts are
able to navigate the Nile and the surrounding seas
much more so than before. We also have, now, a market
segment coming about. Men of great wealth, men of
great power are traveling to far distant lands for exchange. It’s becoming a world dynamic. So, we see greater
economic exchange, greater socio-cultural
impacts or acculturalization. Acculturalization is when two
different cultures come together and they either clash or they
exchange and become interwoven. We also see a change
in the physical and natural environment. We see the, again, the horses
are coming in, technology, and we see people
chronicling their travel. We see journals coming about. I couldn’t find my reference for
this, and this is later on in the timeline, but we see,
because of the writing capability, people are now
jotting down their experiences and they’re talking to people. They say, “Look, we
need these services. I’m a person coming
from the government. I want these types of services. I should be put up in
these type of hostels. I want the best food. I want to be able to travel in
relatively peace and quiet.” They’re leaving behind a
chroniclization of what they’ve been doing. Like this gentleman,
Prince, I’m sorry I’m not able to say this
really correct, Harkhuf?>>male speaker:
Harkhuf, yes.>>Dr. Pudliner:
Okay. He’s left actually inscribed
in his tomb, “Open up the way into this country,” Sudan. “Did it in seven months and brought back all kinds
of goods and rare products.” Again, souvenirs. We see the development
of travel activities. King of Ur, I don’t know if I
said that correctly.>>male speaker:
Ur.>>Dr. Pudliner:
My dad would be proud, he’s a history teacher. We see the beginning of roads
being built, actually use of products and materials to
actually create roads. Now, they didn’t come into their
own until the Roman times, but, again, something
to make it easier. We see the first
hotels coming about and they’re called
caravansaries, don’t know if I
said that right. Again, it’s just not a place for
people to lay their heads, but it’s also the first bizarres,
people to exchange goods. I see something, I
like it, I want it. I want to take it back with me. The Phoenicians are
now improvising. They’re traveling all around the
Mediterranean and they’re passing words about
the different areas, especially Egypt. They’re exchanging their own
goods and they’re going as far north as the British Isles. We have a development
from the sturdy carts now to the chariot in Egypt. Again, a much more sturdy
device to take them around different areas of Egypt,
different areas of Africa. You also see a really big
development in military. Again, you want to
travel in peace. You want to get from
one place to the other and not be bothered. Now, we really see, what we
like to call in tourism, is these pockets of activities,
these constructions of different places where people
can go and see things. Even though they had other
connotations, the pharaohs wanted these elaborate tombs
because, “I’m a pharaoh. This is me. I’m a big person and I
want to be remembered.” These other people that
were traveling around the Mediterranean, they see these
things and they say, “Wow. I can take this back. Look at this. I can take this back to
my own country. You’ve got to go see this.” They’re taking drawings. They’re drawing things, they’re
actually making the first postcards and taking them
back to their own countries. They’re actually creating
the trade routes. Queen, okay hold on, Hatsup.>>male speaker:
Hatshepsut.>>Dr. Pudliner:
Hatshepsut, thank you. Sorry, again, I’m
terrible at this. She’s one of the first women to
actually travel along the Nile and down into greater Africa. Her travels are actually
recorded at the Temple of Deir Ha Breha?>>male speaker:
Deir El-Bahri.>>Dr. Pudliner:
Deir El-Bahri at Luxor. That I could get, so forgive me. We have one of
the first hostels. Again, these are actually now
you’re paying for a stay and you’re actually exchanging
money to stay in a hotel. They are, before they’re more
development from the, I can’t say, the original hostels. Up until 500 BCE, again, we now
have greater number of people coming from Europe, greater
coming from northern France area down into Egypt, and they’re
leaving their mark behind because that’s one of
the things that tourists do. We like to leave
our mark on things. We like to take pieces
of stone home. So, the Greeks actually left
their little scrolls, or their graffiti, and actually, that
word you now see, come out of Egypt and out of the
Greeks graffiti, and they’ve left their mark on
Egyptian artifacts. If I really take this into the
19th century, this is actually, you can pinpoint this time
period to actually the start of organized tourism,
like the tour guides. You always wanted somebody that
knew how to get there and knew how to get back because
travel was dangerous. But think of the modern
tour guide, think of the grand tour back in
the 19th century. This is actually part of
the economy now and people are now giving money in
exchange for services. So, it is actually pinpoint
organized tourism into this era. So, from 3,000 up until 500 BCE. Are you ready?>>female speaker:
I’m ready.>>Dr. Pudliner:
Okay.>>Dr. Wahby:
Thank you. [audience applause]>>Dr. Pudliner:
You’re welcome.>>Dr. Katy Shaw:
Okay. Good morning everybody. My name is Katy Shaw and I teach
in Family and Consumer Sciences. I teach Textile and Apparel
Design and Merchandising as well, which would be the
business end of the fashion industry and apparel industry. So, I’m going to
talk to you a little bit about textiles and fashion. We said textiles primarily for
our name in the program. It seemed more, it kind
of had a flow better. So, I’m going to focus a little
bit on both, but the first thing I think, perhaps, that we
think of when we think of the Egyptian culture is linen. Linen is a cellulosic fiber,
meaning that it comes from the stem of a plant and I have a
flax plant there in the corner for you to kind of see. Linen textiles are
some of the oldest fibers found in the world. So, researchers will go back and
forth as to whether or not silk is older or linen is older. Linen is, sometimes,
also used in currency. Our U.S. dollar
actually has linen in it, as well as cotton. Of course, mummies were also
wrapped in linen cloths. It was seen as a symbol
of light and purity and also as a display of wealth. You can see in the picture
here that the Egyptians are harvesting the flax plants and
then they would weave those into the linen products. Now, at this point, they could
weave it so that it was fairly fine; however, it would be
nothing compared to the fineness that we can weave today,
as far as linen goes. If we talk about dress or
fashion a little bit, the undermost garment was
a loincloth or skent. Usually, the lower class
would wear only a skent or a loincloth. Then, upper class citizens would
cover that with, kind of was a depiction of your social class. So, if you could afford leather
to go over your linen cloth or your loincloth, that
was one step up. Then, if you could get an extra
covering over that, it was another and so on and so on. So, you might have
a wrapped skirt, which was called a schenti. Then, also, women
also wore skirts as well. So, the dress was fairly similar
for men and women. The skirt length also varied
between the different kingdoms. So, we have the Old Kingdom,
Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom. The Old Kingdom, the skirt
was generally knee length or shorter and fitted
closely around the hips. The Middle Kingdom, the
skirt was elongated, sometimes reaching
to the ankle. Shorter versions were available
if you were working and needed to be able to move around
better and all of that. Fabric was usually sheer
and you could see the loin cloth visibly
underneath it. During the Middle Kingdom,
we also, some of the pictures depict pleats
being used in their skirts. So, that’s kind of interesting
how they did that. Perhaps, the used a
starching method or a board to fold the pleats. Then, the New Kingdom. Again, we see the use of pleats
in the skirts and they were, again, they kind of, we
saw them get shorter and they fit more closely. So, it’s interesting that in the
Old Kingdom they were short, the Middle Kingdom, a little
bit longer and then we go back to the short skirt
in the New Kingdom. Just like we see
in fashion today. In the 1960s, it was all about
the mini-skirts, then we go back to the maxi-skirts, which are
really long, and mini-skirts and back and forth. As far as historically, what’s
happening in our environment can affect our fashion. So, women also wore a tight
fitting colorful dress, often called a sheath dress. Then, if I click on this, it
shows you that sometimes they had a beaded garment
that was put over the wrapped linen
sheath underneath. Does this remind anyone of any
Western wear in the 1900s? The 20th century,
early 20th century?>>female speaker:
Flappers.>>Dr. Shaw:
Exactly. So, if this kind of reminds you
of a flapper dress, and I have pictures later to show you, but
where we see the beaded garments going over and they’re see
through and then a non-see through garment underneath them. So, make-up was also important
during this time and this is, sometimes people don’t think of
this as part of fashion but it’s something that we call a body
modification, so even lotions could be part of fashion
and a part of make-up. So, it served both cosmetic
and health purposes. So, they did it not only to make
themselves more beautiful and as appealing to the opposite sex,
but also lotions to help protect their skin in the hot desert sun
and all of that sort of thing. Jewelry was also extremely
popular throughout the history of the Egyptian nation. It often indicated just as it
does today, the bigger my engagement ring, the
more wealth I have. The same was true for
the Egyptian culture. It indicates a social position
and a level of wealth. Even the poor adorned
themselves with as much jewelry as possible. So, as much as I could
get, I would put on. As we know, they often buried
themselves with all of their jewelry with them, and we’re
thankful for that, so that we could discover it and learn
about their culture today. So that could be taken and
used in the afterlife. This was probably my favorite
thing that I learned while discovering and learning about
Egyptian fashion, was the discovery of King Tut’s tomb. So, it was discovered in 1922
and it played a large role in the fashions of
the Western world. I had never really thought about
that but if you look back at some of the different pictures,
I have the flapper dress with the beaded sheath
over it and all sorts of different influences. Eyeliners became more
popular, the bright red lips and all sorts of things. It was also the
primary influence of the Art Deco design. So, if you think about,
also, gold thong sandals were big in the 1920s,
eyeliner, and etcetera. If we jump ahead to 40 years
later and the influence that it had on the Western world, we
can look at Liz Taylor in her version of Cleopatra in 1963. So, I wasn’t around in the
1960s, maybe some of you were, so can you tell me some of the
fashion trends of the 1960s that you think had an
Egyptian influence? I’m not saying any of you were
around in the 1960s either but maybe you read a
history book or two. [audience laughter]>>female speaker:
I remember my mom having a lot of
two-toned gold jewelry and the large necklaces.>>Dr. Shaw:
Okay.>>female speaker:
And the compacts that she carried were
very elaborate with a lot of turquoise on them.>>Dr. Shaw:
Okay. Exactly. Yeah.>>male speaker:
Also, the make up, all the colors around your eyes
and things like that.>>Dr. Shaw:
Yes.>>male speaker:
I was born in the 1950s so by that time I
really recall the late 1960s just being flooded
with all of that.>>Dr. Shaw:
I forgot to tell you for make-up their
favorite colors were green and blue, for eye make-
up, and black of course. They ground down different
plants and added liquid to them to make the different make-up. We do see a lot of green
and blue and, of course, the cat eyes as well.>>male speaker:
What about the things that African American
women put on their heads, maybe starting about that time?>>Dr. Shaw:
That’s true as well.>>male speaker:
Isn’t it the things that sort of look like
the [unclear dialogue].>>Dr. Shaw:
Well, and hair pieces and wigs were popular in the
1960s as well; like wearing a flip in your ponytail,
which would make it look fuller and bigger. Wigs were used a lot in the
Egyptian culture as well. So, fashion in Egypt today. I found one primarily fashion
designer and he is in Cairo. Soucha is his name. I have a little video
clip to show you. This is from 2010. I don’t know if there is
sound but we can watch. But you can see
historical influences, even in modern day design. So, here the green. Gold. Color is important. One thing I forgot,
this necklace I wore it especially for today. It’s from the 1920s. It was my great grandmother’s
and I thought I would put it on because you can
even see, kind of, the Egyptian influences
of it as well. My boots also. If you think about
Egyptian tapestry, linen and things like that. So, we owe a lot of our
fashion influences to the Egyptian culture. If you think about the jeweled
sandals that have been popular the last couple of summers
and other sorts of things. Okay.>>male speaker:
Thank you. [audience applause]>>Dr. Shaw:
You’re welcome. My name is Axton Betz
and I’m an assistant professor of Consumer
Studies in the Family and Consumer Sciences Program. My research interest focuses
on identity theft and other consumer fraud issues. So, that’s the focus of
my presentation today. So, as probably many of you
know, there are various forms of financial fraud that are
increasing not only here at home in the United States,
but internationally as well. Fraud is increasing in Egypt,
particularly financial fraud, and I have some specific
examples of those, including advanced fee scams, credit
card fraud, phishing, and I’ll describe what that is
later, and a variety of other financial frauds. Financial fraud has been in
existence for hundreds of years. It’s just over time the schemes
evolve in different ways, but the basic ideas of financial
fraud have been in existence for a very, very long time. So, with regards to Ancient
Egypt in fraud, there was fraud going on with the scribes who
were keeping the pharaohs books. The scribes, their job was to
inventory grain, gold and anything of value that could
be used as currency. There was theft going
on with the scribes. They were stealing these items
that could be used as currency and this got to be such a
problem over time, that the solution was to have two scribes
inventory the same items. If there was any discrepancy
between the two scribes, the punishment for both of
those scribes was death. So, pretty stiff
punishment for theft.>>male speaker:
[unclear dialogue]>>Professor Betz:
That’s true, that is definitely possible. Financial fraud, again,
is a concern in Egypt. According to the American
Chamber of Commerce in Egypt, we need to raise
consumer awareness regarding financial fraud. Sounds pretty similar
to what we’re hearing here at home as well. Again, some examples, I’ll get
into each of these as I go through the presentation,
include credit card fraud, online bank fraud, and
advanced fee scams. In 2009, $62 million was stolen
in Egypt from consumers by stealing credit card and debit
card information online. One reason that credit card and
debit card fraud occurring online is such a problem in
Egypt is because security is an issue between the banks
and the credit card companies and the merchants. Communication is a
problem and, basically, the security is
very, very weak. So, people who commit these
scams commit these frauds, they know it and they
take advantage of it. Also in 2009, 53 people were
arrested for committing online bank fraud. These 53 individuals
included U.S nationals and
Egyptian nationals. This was the largest online
financial fraud ring, where they actually had arrests
in the United States. What people were doing, this
originated in Egypt, Egyptian nationals were sending emails to
Bank of America customers and Wells Fargo customers saying
something to the effect of, “Your online bank account
password has been compromised, there’s something wrong with
your account in some way. We need you to click this link,”
the link is always in the email, “we need you to
click on this link and reset your information.” What this particular phishing
scam was doing, these phishing emails, they were asking for
people’s bank account numbers and online bank
account passwords. People who got these emails, it
elicited fear because they were being told that their account
information was compromised, the email looked like it
really came from Wells Fargo and Bank of America, and so
people were giving their personal information
to these scammers. So, my last fraud that I want to
talk to you guys about that is a huge problem in Egypt,
is advanced fee fraud. Now, this is something that has
been going on in the United States for a much longer period
of time and here, in the United States, people are wising up to
it and they’re not falling for it as much, but in Egypt this
is still a major problem. What happens is that a potential
victim gets an email that says “I can promise you this large
sum of money if you send me what amounts to a much lesser
fee as a transaction fee.” People fall for this stuff, they
want that large sum of money. Some people don’t believe in the
adage that if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. So, they send the transaction
fee to wherever they’re directed to send it to. What happens is that the scam
artist keeps that transaction fee and the victim has no idea
how to contact them or if they email them back, they
never get a response. So, the scammer keeps that
transaction fee and the victim sees no money from this
promised large sum of money. With that, I will hand
it over to Kathy. [audience applause and laughter]>>female speaker:
You did good.>>Dr. Wahby:
Ancient Egyptian cookies.>>Kathy Rhodes:
Fresh from the pyramid today. [audience laughter]>>Professor Betz:
Okay, unhook me please?>>female speaker:
Sorry, I don’t want to get it caught in your hair. I’m not trying to hurt you.>>Professor Betz:
It’s okay. I got it on there good. Here, you need that.>>Professor Kathy Rhodes:
Oh, do I need that?>>Dr. Pudliner:
Yes, unfortunately.>>Professor Rhodes:
I thought everybody could hear me.>>Dr. Pudliner:
Oh, I know. I thought so too for me. I’m sorry. Okay, there you go.>>Professor Rhodes:
Don’t get so close Betsy.>>Dr. Pudliner:
Sorry.>>Professor Rhodes:
Okay. That looks really nice. I am Kathy Rhodes
and I am going to talk today about
the Egyptian food. I don’t use a lot of
PowerPoint because I kind of think I
know food a lot. Egyptian food, though, when
I started researching this, was amazing to me. I was so excited about it
because of what I found out. What I found out was that if
everyone today would eat like they did back in the day, 3,000
years ago, we would all be fit as a fiddle because what they
did is they ate exactly the way God intended us to eat,
which was off the land. So, we ate vegetables, we
ate fruits, we ate fish. We had very little meat, very
little pork and beef, because their was no way to raise the
cattle there in the desert. Egypt is a very
dry, dry country. So, the only thing they did have
though, was if they lived by the Nile, is they had the Nile. The Nile, of course it would
flood, and then when it would recede, it would leave silt and
different things on the land that later on, they could use
to plant their crops with. They could plant
their crops in the land. The soil itself was just black,
that’s how fertile it was. It grew the best wheat and the
best wheat made the best bread. It also made the best beer,
which beer and wine were the two main beverages that we had for
Egypt; that’s what they drank. Then, the bread also. So, it was bread, the beer, and
the wine were your main staples. They also had figs and dates. The cookies you’re enjoying now,
I hope you’re enjoying them, they just came out of the oven,
that’s why I was a little late, they have dates in them. I flew them in yesterday, from
this guy here, just so we could make your cookies today, okay. [male laughter]>>Professor Rhodes:
I could have used raisins but I thought, no, let’s
use dates, because that’s what they ate, was dates. The figs and the wine, they ate
them also, as food, but they also used them to make wines. So, that’s, hence, where
that came from. They also used a lot
of pomegranates and pomegranate wine and
pomegranate seeds. We think that we have invented
something when we’re using the pomegranate seeds. Forget it, Egypt had
it way before we did. So, they ate more healthy
then, especially poor people. Poor people could
not afford anything. They could not, I mean they
were lucky to get a garden raised so that they had
vegetables out of that garden. They didn’t have money for meat. They didn’t have money for the
olive oils and the coconuts such as the rich did. The rich ate very lavishly
and the rich were not as fit as the poor people. Of course, the poor
people also had to work. They had to physically get
out and tend the garden and physically go out and pick it
and do everything else with the garden, among other things. They had open air markets
that sometimes they could take some of the things. If they had anything left, they
could take it to the market and sell it to get money to
buy different things with. They also had fruits. I mean they had, I can’t
even remember, pomegranates and different fruits like that. So, it was fruits and
their vegetables. Vegetables were mainly cabbages,
turnips, what else, onions. Onions were a huge staple
for the Egyptians back then because that flavor. It had a lot of flavor for the
Egyptians and their meal planning and in their cooking,
their cooking process. They had onions, they had
garlic, different things like that, but it was all natural. They didn’t use any
fertilizers of any kind. They used no
chemicals of any kind. So, everything was fine. Once you take this into your
body, if you don’t fill it full of chemicals and all this stuff,
it makes the body better. So, that’s why the poor
people ate more healthy than the rich people did. Rich people, they could afford
to decant their wines and beverages, their beers
and different things, in nice silver and bronze pots. Where the poor
people had clay pots. It wasn’t until, I can’t
remember what year it was, but anyway, that’s when they
lined the inside like a glaze on the inside of the pot because
at times, the pot was made out of clay and it would seep
through, whatever beverage was in there, would seep through,
which would cause problems. So, later on, they did glaze
the inside of the pot. As far as cooking, the poor
people cooked with clay pots. They cooked over an open fire. Usually, it was an open fire, it
was usually on a roof, an open roof, it was on top of the roof. Well, I don’t know how
you have a closed roof, I don’t know, oh well. Anyway, so they did that. They might have a place out back
where they dug a pit or lined it with branches and this
is how they cooked. They cooked in
the old clay pots. If they were going
to bake bread, they had grown their wheat. So, the baking of the
bread was a huge process. It was huge. They would have to go harvest
the wheat, they’d have to dry the wheat, then they’d have to
grind it by hand into the flour. Then, they had to bake the
bread, which it just took forever because of how their
cooking things were, their cooking stoves or whatever
they had, their little ovens. So, it would take a
long time for that. So, that’s one of the things
they had plentiful of. They didn’t have a, like I said
before, they didn’t have a lot of meat or anything
so that’s what they ate, was bread and beer. So, they did that and they also
had the spices, coriander and cumin and, well, garlic. I consider that a spice
because it’s real flavorful. They had salt, they had
different things like that that they used to flavor the
meats and vegetables with. They also got fish. They got their fish from the
Nile, so the Nile was very important to them not only for
their livelihood of the fish, but it was also for the
livelihood of the land because it did make the
land very fertile. It also, back in the day, I
think Egyptians were one of the first, if I’m wrong please
correct me, was one of the first with the irrigation with
the Nile, was that not correct? Yes. So, that too. We thought we invented
irrigation, no we didn’t. They did many years ago. That too was very
helpful to them to make sure that it was irrigated. So, they watered their plants,
they watered their crops with it, they drank the water, they
bathed in it, they did all kinds of things in that
water I’m sure. They also did their laundry
with that Nile River. It also produced a trades
market, is that correct, in, do you know?>>male speaker:
A super highway.>>Professor Rhodes:
A super highway of sorts that they had
over many years. Today, I have to tell you this. This is what I’ve been
practicing all morning, I don’t know why I’m
having a tough time saying it though. Fafala. Does anybody know
what Fafala is? What is that, what do we have in
Italy when Italians came to–?>>female speaker:
It’s a pasta isn’t it?>>Professor Rhodes:
No, it’s a bean.>>female speaker:
Oh.>>Professor Rhodes:
The fa fa la bean.>>male speaker:
The fava bean.>>Professor Rhodes:
The fava bean, yes. Fafala is like a bean cake. Today, it’s still used. Many of the foods that were back
3,000 years ago or 2500 years ago has evolved and we’re
still eating it today. Hummus is one as well. Hummus, we use hummus. I use hummus a lot. In Pantera, we use
that a lot as a dip with pita breads,
pocket breads. The breads were made in
30 different shapes. I don’t know, bread is bread,
but they wanted to make it different shapes and make
it more interesting. So, yeah. So, a lot of the things that
they did back in the day, we still do today. So, I was very, very thrilled
and privileged to be able to research the foods because I
thought it’s just food but I was so interested, I got so
wrapped up in how it was made, how they cooked it and then
how they ate it and who could afford what, and in all
actuality it was all about who had what back in the day. So, kind of like what
it is today but not quite so bad. But it was then. Poor people ate, they were
healthy, these people ate, they had money, not so healthy
and that’s the way it is today. So, that’s what I found out. [audience applause and laughter]>>Professor Rhodes:
Thank you, I hope you enjoy the cookies.>>female speakers:
Thank you. They are good.>>Dr. Wahby:
Any questions or comments? Well, I have a question for each
of the speakers, if I may?>>Dr. Wahby:
I’ll start with food, Kathy Rhodes. In the burial tombs, of this
size or any other size, you find jars and some
grains and some food, what do you think about that?>>Professor Rhodes:
Well, to me, I thought it was for them to take on
their journey because the body was going to take a journey
and that’s what that was to me. Because in all actuality, when
they open some of these tombs up, that’s what you
found in there. You found the jars and different
things in there and that’s what leads us to know what they used
as utensils back then as well and how they stored
things and, actually, how they preserve things.>>Dr. Wahby:
Yeah.>>Professor Rhodes:
It was drying in the jars.>>Dr. Wahby:
We found something very strange and you
correct me on this if you like, at a certain
height here where they, in the pyramidical shape, the
grains were alive still, after these many years, because of
this shape, they have something about the one third or
something that says if you put anything here, the food
wouldn’t rot or something. We can experiment
with it even now. For some reason, this
shape preserves food.>>Professor Rhodes:
You know what, that’s funny that you would say
that because in Khlem Hall right now in FCS,
we’re doing some research on some gluten free breads. We have a pizza crust that’s
laid out for five days now, maybe six days, I don’t know. It was doing fine, there was no
mold or anything on it, and that’s what we’re trying to
make, is a shelf-stable bread. Someone had mistakenly put a
small calculator on top of that bread and right where
that calculator was at has an outline of mold. So, what does that have to
do with, see how that–>>Dr. Wahby:
It’s something there.>>Professor Rhodes:
It makes me think, yes.>>Dr. Wahby:
That’s a good idea.>>Dr. Wahby:
By the way, did they eat meat at the time?>>Professor Rhodes:
They did not. The poor did not eat as
much meat as the rich. They had mutton but it was beef
and pork was what the rich ate but they had to be able to
afford to bring it in on the Nile from other countries. So, that’s what they ate. They ate prairie animals, birds
and things like that as well.>>Dr. Wahby:
Okay. Thank you very much. We will come back to you if
anybody has any questions. Go to the fraud and the money.>>Professor Betz:
Okay.>>Dr. Wahby:
Did you read anything in your research about fraud
at the time or cheating in the marketplace or any kind
of evil thing that happened?>>Professor Betz:
Outside of the scribes stealing from the pharaohs, no,
I did not run across anything.>>Dr. Wahby:
Okay. Do you have any idea about how
much money can they count, to million for example,
or just $100 or $1,000 or whatever
the currency is? Did they have big sums of money
to talk about or just nickel or dime or something?>>Professor Betz:
Well, what I read didn’t give specific numbers. I got the impression
that these sums were large for that time period.>>Dr. Wahby:
Okay, well last question for you at this time. Some [unclear dialogue]
would mention how did they divide money between
family members and the wills, how to divide the acres
accurately, how to make replacement
or equivalency of square and circle with the pi
thing, does this ring any bell?>>Professor Betz:
No, unfortunately.>>Dr. Wahby:
Well, it’s interesting for next presentation.>>Professor Betz:
Yes.>>female speaker:
Well, I would ask on that, what was their currency? Your first slide had
the little circles.>>Dr. Pudliner:
That was the money of the Sumerians.>>female speaker:
Oh.>>Dr. Pudliner:
That’s actually shell money.>>female speaker:
Oh, okay.>>Dr. Pudliner:
It’s like a shell money and then they, basically,
that was the currency that was going around that
different area until, of course, the barter
system and reciprocal agreements and transactions.>>female speaker:
Okay.>>Dr. Wahby:
Tourism. What were the indications
of Crete having a hotel or something?>>Dr. Pudliner:
That was one of the first organized hostels
where they actually you paid for your actual bed
and you actually had your own room or a
dormitory type room, depending on your class system.>>Dr. Wahby:
So, it is documented?>>Dr. Pudliner:
Mmmm-hmmm. Before that, you
could stay anywhere. What I didn’t get
into, also, was the law of hospitality. Of course, in that area it’s
built into the legal system. You can not refuse
someone hospitality on certain situations. Biblical times, if you, of
course, you read the Bible in Christian terms, again, Mary and
Joseph were turned away at the inn but the innkeeper could have
faced certain problems with that with the legal systems. In Egypt, of course, it’s built
into you’re supposed to, again, your table is supposed to be if
you have someone coming in under a class system, your table has
to be laid out with certain things for that class system. If you didn’t, you had to put
forth money or any type of resources to get those items:
specific oils, specific spices, specific foods.>>Dr. Wahby:
Okay, It was interesting because somebody from
the government would say, I’m important, put me in
this or that, feed me this, that’s interesting.>>Dr. Pudliner:
Yeah, that was when they, because of the dynamic
increase in trade and travel, people being able to go
from one place to another, you really see that
status quo coming to, even more prevalent
in other societies. Of course, Egypt took it to that
next level because they were the society of that time
period, before the Greeks, before the Romans.>>Dr. Wahby:
Do we find that it is amazing that to us when
we say Ancient Egypt, we look back and say all of
them are Ancient Egypt. To them, there were
2,000 years between. For example, here, you
have this stella talking about 1,000 years
after this was built. So, it is ancient to these guys
who made some of the repair or something to it after 1,000
years, but when we go as tourists or as natives, you look
at this and this as one piece because they are kind of, as if
you’re looking into a series of mountains, you lose the
distance [unclear dialogue]>>Dr. Rhodes:
Also, you have to think about we lose a lot
in time because one nation comes to prominence
then, of course, they decline. It’s like Romans become
very prominent after the Ancient Egyptians
and then, of course, the decline but you can see that
within the landscape itself. If you would take pictures
from that time period and you can see the build-up
of different attractions, as we call them today. Society, you can
see written into the landscape
itself, a history. If you would look at the
build-up and the architecture and the sophistication of the
architecture because of the technology of what
was happening. Then, people coming to visit and
that exchange and taking it back to the different areas of the
Mediterranean, of course. Then, you see
the Greeks building. Of course, you can take it back
to the Ancient Egyptians on the different styles and building. It’s like how did they do that,
let’s take that back now and can we improve our society.>>Dr. Wahby:
I concur with you with the tourism thing because in the
oldest book in the Bible, the Book of Job, is the first
mention to the pyramids. He was living in the land near
current Palestine, Jordan, in Uz land, as you call it, and
they heard about the pyramids and heard about rich people
and heard about pharaohs. This is very old, that’s the
oldest book in history that says I’m not so proud of
myself, that’s Job saying, I was so modest, I’m not like
those people who are proud to build pyramids for
their death burials. So, these things have been known
all over the place as you said.>>Dr. Pudliner:
Again, the Egyptians were building these things
for the personification of the pharaohs. But then you had the
festival came into its own at this time period
because it’s now just not a celebratory because
the movement of the sun across, the ages of the pharaohs. People were coming not only for
the religious festivals but now they have all of this structure
to look at and to draw from and to write about and you see
the, actually, the organization of festivals and actually tour
guides and tour brochures. They actually see information
coming out of Egypt. Pockets of information getting
sent back, even if it’s oral and it’s communicated by mouth,
you’ve got a verbal brochure. It’s like you have to go for
this religious, even though it may not be my religion, they’re
going to see this spectacle. So, actually, my background’s
also in the historical aspects of tourism and I always
thought one thing. Organized tourism was from the
1820’s with the Scots because of the Prince Regent going up
to Edinburgh and visiting Sir Walter Scott and actually
organizing that event. Actually doing this research, I
actually can now pinpoint even earlier organized
tourism, not that it is from the 19th century, but
now you can see I have even greater respect for
organized tourism.>>Dr. Wahby:
Somebody told me that it’s written that Ancient
Egyptians would go to the festivals and the
national, days of, whatever, vacationing in
the plateau in front of the pyramids, the pyramid and
the Sphinx, like we go today for sound and light
and see this. That was their parking–>>Dr. Pudliner:
That was the movie theater.>>Dr. Wahby:
Yes, the amusement park for them, so it’s interesting. Now, if you don’t
have any questions, I have two questions
for fashion. What is it, psychologically
speaking, that makes people try to change fashion from
time to time, year to year or five years or whatever? Why this urge to change old
fashion, new fashion?>>Dr. Shaw:
The greatest reason to change fashion is a person’s
need to be an individual. So, you’ll notice even if we
look back to old fashion, there’s a Thoreau quote that
says each generation laughs at the last generation’s fashions
but follows religiously the new. So, I think things change enough
to where, as consumers, we have to buy the newest thing but
we have so many influences. But the primary reason is
because our just need to be an individual so we have these
subcultures that develop different fashions. So, right now the EMU fashion
movement, which comes from Japan, and the black kind of
Hot Topic stores if you guys, I don’t know if you’ve heard of
Hot Topic but you’ll see a lot of the teenagers wearing them. Of course, that leads me
to another point that it comes primarily from
younger generations, as far as developing.>>Dr. Wahby:
So, when you say individual you mean individual or
group as a personality of a generation, individuality?>>Dr. Shaw:
I would say both. So, as much as we want
to be an individual and express ourselves, and
some more than others, we also want to fit in and
not stand out too much, so finding that happy
medium I guess.>>Dr. Wahby:
Talking about this, what is a happy medium
between–let us talk about the younger generations. They want to belong and
be like everybody else. Mommy, I want to dress
like other girls or boys–>>Dr. Shaw:
But, I also want to be the first one to have
the newest item.>>Dr. Wahby:
Yeah, yes.>>Dr. Shaw:
So, that’s the difference.>>Dr. Wahby:
Is there a real struggle between being really individual
amongst and being in the group?>>Dr. Shaw:
Right, and there’s something called the fashion
life cycle, so it’s a bell-curve basically. So, it starts with just a few
that accept the trend and then we see a concentration in the
market of, let’s say the iPod. So we have our first few people
that will get the newest iPod and then, slowly but surely,
it saturates the market and then it goes through
a decline at the end.>>Dr. Wahby:
Now, take my question in good faith, would the
fashion leaders in the world play on this
to make big money because they play on the urge or
the instinct for human beings to change, I want not to be
bored, I want to belong and I want to be an individual. So, this natural instincts, are
they, in a bad sense, manipulated or played on so that
these guys are meeting in Hawaii and say let us make
the skirt shorter. Next year we’ll make
the other one. No, no, keep this
for the third year, so we can milk
the honey as we go.>>Dr. Shaw:
Absolutely, they’re out to make money and
that’s their way of making money is to come
up with the newest and latest trend and hope that it
goes into the culture and catches on, basically. There’s two different theories. There’s the trickle down theory,
that fashion comes from higher economic statuses and trickles
down into us commoners, I guess. Then, there’s also the
subculture theory, where it comes from the lower
classes and, in a sense, trickles up into the middle
classes and upper classes.>>Dr. Wahby:
Do you advise the younger generation
to be wise, not to be manipulated to buy these
scams or whatever the market?>>Dr. Shaw:
When I’m giving fashion advice to my students or telling them
about being a good consumer, I always say buy classics
for your wardrobe that will last you a long time and it also
helps you to portray yourself as a classy person. Then, accessorize, with a lack
of better way of saying it, accessorize with trendy items
that you don’t necessarily have to spend a lot of money on
but you’re still up to date with your wardrobe.>>Dr. Wahby:
One last question. Any cow, or any animal, wouldn’t
feel the urge to change fashion or change and not
feeling bored. Animals don’t have this,
human beings have this. What is it when you hear about
some darwinian evolutionist who say the baboon has 99%
DNA like human beings or something like that? So, if the DNA is almost
the same as animals, you never see a
monkey feeling bored or changing
dresses or wanting it. What is it?>>Dr. Shaw:
What is it that sets us apart? Is that what you’re asking me?>>Dr. Wahby:
We can keep it for next session.>>Dr. Wahby:
That’s a whole ‘nother session. I would say, well, my
dissertation research was on nostalgia. You know, we have emotional
connection to things that we wear and places that we shop
and places that we eat and places that we travel. So, things like this even give
us a sense of nostalgia that we can make that connection
and ‘wow, every time I put on this necklace from
now on, I will not only think about the fact that my
great-grandmother wore it, but also that is was inspired
by the Egyptian culture. So, I would say just
that kind of instinct.>>Dr. Wahby:
Some appreciation here. Would you please come. Stand up.>>Dr. Lanham:
As a small token of our appreciation for our speakers,
we have a nice certificate from the Lumpkin College of
Business Applied Sciences and the Booth Library here at
Eastern for Betsy Pudliner, Axton Betz.>>Dr. Shaw:
That is for my graduate student.>>Dr. Lanham:
This is your graduate student.>>Dr. Shaw:
She’s the one that designed the scarves.>>Dr. Lanham:
Oh wonderful.>>Dr. Shaw:
I already received mine.>>Dr. Lanham:
You already have yours and Katherine Rhodes, Kathy. Thank you for those cookies. [audience applause]>>Dr. Lanham:
You have enriched our knowledge of Ancient Egypt
and also current Egypt and some other consumer
advice along the way. So, we appreciate making our
journey much more lively and entertaining, as
well as thoughtful. Thank you very much. [no dialogue]

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